MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE NOTIFICATION
New Delhi, the 8th April, 2016
S.O. 1357(E).—Whereas the draft of the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2015 were published under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change number G.S.R. 451 (E), dated the 3rd June, 2015 in the Gazette of India, part II, Section3, sub- section (i) of the same date inviting objections or suggestions from the persons likely to be affected thereby, before the expiry of the period of sixty days from the publication of the said notification on the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2015 in supersession of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000;
And whereas, copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on the 3rd June, 2015;
And whereas, the objections or comments received within the stipulated period were duly considered by the Central Government;
Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sections 3, 6 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) and in supersession of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, except as respect things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules for management of Solid Waste, namely:-
1. Short title and commencement.-
- These rules may be called the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016.
- They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
- Application.- These rules shall apply to every urban local body, outgrowths in urban agglomerations, census towns as declared by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, notified areas, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian Railways, airports, airbases, Ports and harbours, defence establishments, special economic zones, State and Central government organisations, places of pilgrims, religious and historical importance as may be notified by respective State government from time to time and to every domestic, institutional, commercial and any other non residential solid waste generator situated in the areas except industrial waste, hazardous waste, hazardous chemicals, bio medical wastes, e-waste, lead acid batteries and radio-active waste, that are covered under separate rules framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- Definitions –(1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,- (1) “aerobic composting” means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter in the presence of oxygen;
- “anaerobic digestion” means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter in absence of oxygen;
- “authorisation” means the permission given by the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be, to the operator of a facility or urban local suthority, or any other agency responsible for processing and disposal of solid waste;
- “biodegradable waste ” means any organic material that can be degraded by micro-organisms into simpler stable compounds;
- “bio-methanation” means a process which entails enzymatic decomposition of the organic matter by microbial action to produce methane rich biogas;
- “brand owner” means a person or company who sells any commodity under a registered brand label.
- “buffer zone” means zone of no development to be maintained around solid waste processing and disposal facility, exceeding 5 TPD of installed capacity. This will be maintained within total and area allotted for the solid waste processing and disposal facility.
- “bulk waste generator” means and includes buildings occupied by the Central government departments or undertakings, State government departments or undertakings, local bodies, public sector undertakings or private companies, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, colleges, universities, other educational institutions, hostels, hotels, commercial establishments, markets, places of worship, stadia and sports complexes having an average waste generation rate exceeding 100kg per day;
- “bye-laws” means regulatory framework notified by local body, census town and notified area townships for facilitating the implementation of these rules effectively in their jurisdiction.
- “census town” means an urban area as defined by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India;
- “combustible waste” means non-biodegradable, non-recyclable, non-reusable, non hazardous solid waste having minimum calorific value exceeding 1500 kcal/kg and excluding chlorinated materials like plastic, wood pulp, etc;
- “composting” means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter;
- “contractor” means a person or firm that undertakes a contract to provide materials or labour to perform a service or do a job for service providing authority;
- “co-processing” means use of non-biodegradable and non recyclable solid waste having calorific value exceeding 1500k/cal as raw material or as a source of energy or both to replace or supplement the natural mineral resources and fossil fuels in industrial processes;
- “decentralised processing” means establishment of dispersed facilities for maximizing the processing of bio- degradable waste and recovery of recyclables closest to the source of generation so as to minimize transportation of waste for processing or disposal;
- “disposal” means the final and safe disposal of post processed residual solid waste and inert street sweepings and silt from surface drains on land as specified in Schedule I to prevent contamination of ground water, surface water, ambient air and attraction of animals or birds;
- “domestic hazardous waste” means discarded paint drums, pesticide cans, CFL bulbs, tube lights, expired medicines, broken mercury thermometers, used batteries, used needles and syringes and contaminated gauge, etc., generated at the household level;
- “door to door collection” means collection of solid waste from the door step of households, shops, commercial establishments , offices , institutional or any other non residential premises and includes collection of such waste from entry gate or a designated location on the ground floor in a housing society , multi storied building or apartments , large residential, commercial or institutional complex or premises;.
- “dry waste” means waste other than bio-degradable waste and inert street sweepings and includes recyclable and non recyclable waste, combustible waste and sanitary napkin and diapers, etc;
- “dump sites” means a land utilised by local body for disposal of solid waste without following the principles of sanitary land filling;
- “extended producer responsibility” (EPR) means responsibility of any producer of packaging products such as plastic, tin, glass and corrugated boxes, etc., for environmentally sound management, till end-of-life of the packaging products;
- “facility” means any establishment wherein the solid waste management processes namely segregation, recovery, storage, collection, recycling, processing, treatment or safe disposal are carried out;
- “fine” means penalty imposed on waste generators or operators of waste processing and disposal facilities under the bye-laws for non-compliance of the directions contained in these rules and/or bye- laws
- “Form” means a F8orm appended to these rules;
- “handling” includes all activities relating to sorting, segregation, material recovery, collection, secondary storage, shredding, baling, crushing, loading, unloading, transportation, processing and disposal of solid wastes;
- “inerts” means wastes which are not bio-degradable, recyclable or combustible street sweeping or dust and silt removed from the surface drains;
- “incineration” means an engineered process involving burning or combustion of solid waste to thermally degrade waste materials at high temperatures;
- “informal waste collector” includes individuals, associations or waste traders who are involved in sorting, sale and purchase of recyclable materials;
- “leachate” means the liquid that seeps through solid waste or other medium and has extracts of dissolved or suspended material from it;
- ” local body” for the purpose of these rules means and includes the municipal corporation, nagar nigam, municipal council, nagarpalika, nagar Palikaparishad, municipal board, nagar panchayat and town panchayat, census towns, notified areas and notified industrial townships with whatever name they are called in different States and union territories in India;
- “materials recovery facility” (MRF) means a facility where non-compostable solid waste can be temporarily stored by the local body or any other entity mentioned in rule 2 or any person or agency authorised by any of them to facilitate segregation, sorting and recovery of recyclables from various components of waste by authorised informal sector of waste pickers, informal recyclers or any other work force engaged by the local body or entity mentioned in rule 2for the purpose before the waste is delivered or taken up for its processing or disposal;
- “non-biodegradable waste” means any waste that cannot be degraded by micro organisms into simpler stable compounds;
- “operator of a facility” means a person or entity, who owns or operates a facility for handling solid waste which includes the local body and any other entity or agency appointed by the local body;
- primary collection” means collecting, lifting and removal of segregated solid waste from source of its generation including households, shops, offices and any other non-residential premises or from any collection points or any other location specified by the local body;
- “processing” means any scientific process by which segregated solid waste is handled for the purpose of reuse, recycling or transformation into new products;
- “recycling” means the process of transforming segregated non-biodegradable solid waste into new material or product or as raw material for producing new products which may or may not be similar to the original products;
- “redevelopment” means rebuilding of old residential or commercial buildings at the same site, where the existing buildings and other infrastructures have become dilapidated;
- “refused derived fuel“(RDF) means fuel derived from combustible waste fraction of solid waste like plastic, wood, pulp or organic waste, other than chlorinated materials, in the form of pellets or fluff produced by drying, shredding, dehydrating and compacting of solid waste ;
- “residual solid waste” means and includes the waste and rejects from the solid waste processing facilities which are not suitable for recycling or further processing;
- “sanitary land filling ” means the final and safe disposal of residual solid waste and inert wastes on land in a facility designed with protective measures against pollution of ground water, surface water and fugitive air dust, wind-blown litter, bad odour, fire hazard, animal menace, bird menace, pests or rodents, greenhouse gas emissions, persistent organic pollutants slope instability and erosion;
- “sanitary waste” means wastes comprising of used diapers, sanitary towels or napkins, tampons, condoms, incontinence sheets and any other similar waste;
- “Schedule” means the Schedule appended to these rules;
- “secondary storage” means the temporary containment of solid waste after collection at secondary waste storage depots or MRFs or bins for onward transportation of the waste to the processing or disposal facility;
- “segregation” means sorting and separate storage of various components of solid waste namely biodegradable wastes including agriculture and dairy waste, non biodegradable wastes including recyclable waste, non- recyclable combustible waste, sanitary waste and non recyclable inert waste, domestic hazardous wastes, and construction and demolition wastes;
- “service provider” means an authority providing public utility services like water, sewerage, electricity, telephone, roads, drainage, etc;
- “solid waste” means and includes solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitary waste, commercial waste, institutional waste, catering and market waste and other non residential wastes, street sweepings, silt removed or collected from the surface drains, horticulture waste, agriculture and dairy waste, treated bio-medical waste excluding industrial waste, bio-medical waste and e-waste, battery waste, radio-active waste generated in the area under the local authorities and other entities mentioned in rule 2;
- “sorting” means separating various components and categories of recyclables such as paper, plastic, card- boards, metal, glass, etc., from mixed waste as may be appropriate to facilitate recycling;
- “stabilising” means the biological decomposition of biodegradable wastes to a stable state where it generates no leachate or offensive odours and is fit for application to farm land ,soil erosion control and soil remediation;
- “street vendor” means any person engaged in vending of articles, goods, wares, food items or merchandise of everyday use or offering services to the general public, in a street, lane, side walk, footpath, pavement, public park or any other public place or private area, from a temporary built up structure or by moving from place to place and includes hawker, peddler, squatter and all other synonymous terms which may be local or region specific; and the words “street vending” with their grammatical variations and cognate expressions, shall be construed accordingly;
- “tipping fee” means a fee or support price determined by the local authorities or any state agency authorised by the State government to be paid to the concessionaire or operator of waste processing facility or for disposal of residual solid waste at the landfill;
- “transfer station” means a facility created to receive solid waste from collection areas and transport in bulk in covered vehicles or containers to waste processing and, or, disposal facilities;
- “transportation” means conveyance of solid waste, either treated, partly treated or untreated from a location to another l
ocation in an environmentally sound manner through specially designed and covered transport system so as to prevent the foul odour, littering and unsightly conditions;
- “treatment” means the method, technique or process designed to modify physical, chemical or biological characteristics or composition of any waste so as to reduce its volume and potential to cause harm;
- “user fee” means a fee imposed by the local body and any entity mentioned in rule 2 on the waste generator to cover full or part cost of providing solid waste collection, transportation, processing and disposal services.
- “vermi composting” means the process of conversion of bio-degradable waste into compost using earth worms;
- “waste generator” means and includes every person or group of persons, every residential premises and non residential establishments including Indian Railways, defense establishments, which generate solid waste;
- “waste hierarchy” means the priority order in which the solid waste is to should be managed by giving
emphasis to prevention, reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and disposal, with prevention being the most preferred option and the disposal at the landfill being the least;
- “waste picker” means a person or groups of persons informally engaged in collection and recovery of reusable and recyclable solid waste from the source of waste generation the streets, bins, material recovery facilities, processing and waste disposal facilities for sale to recyclers directly or through intermediaries to earn their livelihood.
(2) Words and expressions used herein but not defined, but defined in the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 and the Air (prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 shall have the same meaning as assigned to them in the respective Acts.
4 Duties of waste generators.- (1) Every waste generator shall,-
- segregate and store the waste generated by them in three separate streams namely bio-degradable, non bio- degradable and domestic hazardous wastes in suitable bins and handover segregated wastes to authorised waste pickers or waste collectors as per the direction or notification by the local authorities from time to time;
- wrap securely the used sanitary waste like diapers, sanitary pads etc., in the pouches provided by the manufacturers or brand owners of these products or in a suitable wrapping material as instructed by the local authorities and shall place the same in the bin meant for dry waste or non- bio-degradable waste;
- store separately construction and demolition waste, as and when generated, in his own premises and shall dispose off as per the Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016; and
- store horticulture waste and garden waste generated from his premises separately in his own premises and dispose of as per the directions of the local body from time to time.
- No waste generator shall throw, burn or burry the solid waste generated by him, on streets, open public spaces outside his premises or in the drain or water bodies.
- All waste generators shall pay such user fee for solid waste management, as specified in the bye-laws of the local bodies.
- No person shall organise an event or gathering of more than one hundred persons at any unlicensed place without intimating the local body, at least three working days in advance and such person or the organiser of such event shall ensure segregation of waste at source and handing over of segregated waste to waste collector or agency as specified by the local body.
- Every street vendor shall keep suitable containers for storage of waste generated during the course of his activity such as food waste, disposable plates, cups, cans, wrappers, coconut shells, leftover food, vegetables, fruits, etc., and shall deposit such waste at waste storage depot or container or vehicle as notified by the local body.
- All resident welfare and market associations shall, within one year from the date of notification of these rules and in partnership with the local body ensure segregation of waste at source by the generators as prescribed in these rules, facilitate collection of segregated waste in separate streams, handover recyclable material to either the authorised waste pickers or the authorised recyclers. The bio-degradable waste shall be processed, treated and disposed off through composting or bio-methanation within the premises as far as possible. The residual waste shall be given to the waste collectors or agency as directed by the local body.
- All gated communities and institutions with more than 5,000 sqm area shall, within one year from the date of notification of these rules and in partnership with the local body, ensure segregation of waste at source by the generators as prescribed in these rules, facilitate collection of segregated waste in separate streams, handover recyclable material to either the authorised waste pickers or the authorizsd recyclers. The bio-degradable waste shall be processed, treated and disposed off through composting or bio-methanation within the premises as far as possible. The residual waste shall be given to the waste collectors or agency as directed by the local body.
- All hotels and restaurants shall, within one year from the date of notification of these rules and in partnership with the local body ensure segregation of waste at source as prescribed in these rules, facilitate collection of segregated waste in separate streams, handover recyclable material to either the authorised waste pickers or the authorised recyclers. The bio-degradable waste shall be processed, treated and disposed off through composting or bio-methanation within the premises as far as possible. The residual waste shall be given to the waste collectors or agency as directed by the local body.
- Duties of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.- (1) The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change shall be responsible for over all monitoring the implementation of these rules in the country. It shall constitute a Central Monitoring Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change comprising officer not below the rank of Joint Secretary or Advisor from the following namely,-
- Ministry of Urban Development
- Ministry of Rural Development
- Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers
- Ministry of Agriculture
- Central Pollution Control Board
- Three State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees by rotation
- Urban Development Departments of three State Governments by rotation
- Rural Development Departments from two State Governments by rotation
- Three Urban Local bodies by rotation
- Two census towns by rotation
- FICCI, CII
- Two subject experts
2. This Central Monitoring Committee shall meet at least once in a year to monitor and review the implementation of these rules. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change may co-opt other experts, if needed. The Committee shall be renewed every three years.
- Duties of Ministry of Urban Development.- (1) The Ministry of Urban Development shall coordinate with State Governments and Union territory Administrations to,-
- take periodic review of the measures taken by the states and local bodies for improving solid waste management practices and execution of solid waste management projects funded by the Ministry and external agencies at least once in a year and give advice on taking corrective measures;
- formulate national policy and strategy on solid waste management including policy on waste to energy in consultation with stakeholders within six months from the date of notification of these rules;
- facilitate States and Union Territories in formulation of state policy and strategy on solid management based on national solid waste management policy and national urban sanitation policy;
- promote research and development in solid waste management sector and disseminate information to States and local bodies;
- undertake training and capacity building of local bodies and other stakeholders;and
- provide technical guidelines and project finance to states, Union territories and local bodies on solid waste management to facilitate meeting timelines and standards.
- Duties of Department of Fertilisers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilisers.- (1) The Department of Fertilisers through appropriate mechanisms shall,-
- provide market development assistance on city compost; and
- ensure promotion of co-marketing of compost with chemical fertilisers in the ratio of 3 to 4 bags: 6 to 7 bags by the fertiliser companies to the extent compost is made availablefor marketing to the companies.
- Duties of Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.- The Ministry of Agriculture through appropriate mechanisms shall,-
- provide flexibility in Fertiliser Control Order for manufacturing and sale of compost;
- propagate utlisation of compost on farm land;
- set up laboratories to test quality of compost produced by local authorities or their authorised agencies; and
- issue suitable guidelines for maintaining the quality of compost and ratio of use of compost visa-a-vis chemical fertilizers while applying compost to farmland.
- Duties of the Ministry of Power.-The Ministry of Power through appropriate mechanisms shall,-
- decide tariff or charges for the power generated from the waste to energy plants based on solid waste.
- compulsory purchase power generated from such waste to energy plants by distribution company.
- Duties of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources- The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources through appropriate mechanisms shall,-
- facilitate infrastructure creation for waste to energy plants; and
- provide appropriate subsidy or incentives for such waste to energy plants.
- Duties of the Secretary–in-charge, Urban Development in the States and Union territories.- (1) The Secretary, Urban Development Department in the State or Union territory through the Commissioner or Director of Municipal Administration or Director of local bodies shall,-
- prepare a state policy and solid waste management strategy for the state or the union territory in consultation with stakeholders including representative of waste pickers, self help group and similar groups working in the field of waste management consistent with these rules, national policy on solid waste management and national urban sanitation policy of the ministry of urban development, in a period not later than one year from the date of notification of these rules;
- while preparing State policy and strategy on solid waste management, lay emphasis on waste reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and optimum utilisation of various components of solid waste to ensure minimisation of waste going to the landfill and minimise impact of solid waste on human health and environment;
- state policies and strategies should acknowledge the primary role played by the informal sector of waste pickers, waste collectors and recycling industry in reducing waste and provide broad guidelines regarding integration of waste picker or informal waste collectors in the waste management system.
- ensure implementation of provisions of these rules by all local authorities;
- direct the town planning department of the State to ensure that master plan of every city in the State or Union territory provisions for setting up of solid waste processing and disposal facilities except for the cities who are members of common waste processing facility or regional sanitary landfill for a group of cities; and
- ensure identification and allocation of suitable land to the local bodies within one year for setting up of processing and disposal facilities for solid wastes and incorporate them in the master plans (land use plan) of the State or as the case may be, cities through metropolitan and district planning committees or town and country planning department;
- direct the town planning department of the State and local bodies to ensure that a separate space for segregation, storage, decentralised processing of solid waste is demarcated in the development plan for group housing or commercial, institutional or any other non-residential complex exceeding 200 dwelling or having a plot area exceeding 5,000 square meters;
- direct the developers of Special Economic Zone, Industrial Estate, Industrial Park to earmark at least five percent of the total area of the plot or minimum five plots or sheds for recovery and recycling facility.
- facilitate establishment of common regional sanitary land fill for a group of cities and towns falling within a distance of 50 km (or more) from the regional facility on a cost sharing basis and ensure professional management of such sanitary landfills;
- arrange for capacity building of local bodies in managing solid waste, segregation and transportation or processing of such waste at source;
- notify buffer zone for the solid waste processing and disposal facilities of more than five tons per day in consultation with the State Pollution Control Board; and
- start a scheme on registration of waste pickers and waste dealers.
- Duties of District Magistrate or District Collector or Deputy Commissioner.- The District Magistrate or District Collector or as the case may be , the Deputy Commissioner shall, –
- facilitate identification and allocation of suitable land as per clause (f) of rules 11 for setting up solid waste processing and disposal facilities to local authorities in his district in close coordination with the Secretary-in-charge of State Urban Development Department within one year from the date of notification of these rules;
- review the performance of local bodies, at least once in a quarter on waste segregation, processing, treatment and disposal and take corrective measures in consultation with the Commissioner or Director of Municipal Administration or Director of local bodies and secretary-in-charge of the State Urban Development.
- Duties of the Secretary–in-charge of Village Panchayats or Rural Development Department in the State and Union territory.- (1) The Secretary–in-charge of Village Panchayats or Rural Development Department in the State and Union territory shall have the same duties as the Secretary–in-charge, Urban Development in the States and Union territories, for the areas which are covered under these rules and are under their jurisdictions.
- Duties of Central Pollution Control Board.-The Central Pollution Control Board shall, –
- co-ordinate with the State Pollution Control Boards and the Pollution Control Committees for implementation of these rules and adherence to the prescribed standards by local authorities;
- formulate the standards for ground water, ambient air, noise pollution, leachate in respect of all solid waste processing and disposal facilities;
- review environmental standards and norms prescribed for solid waste processing facilities or treatment technologies and update them as and when required;
- review through State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees, at least once in a year, the implementation of prescribed environmental standards for solid waste processing facilities or treatment technologies and compile the data monitored by them;
- review the proposals of State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees on use of any new technologies for processing, recycling and treatment of solid waste and prescribe performance standards, emission norms for the same within 6 months;
- monitor through State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees the implementation of these rules by local bodies;
- prepare an annual report on implementation of these rules on the basis of reports received from State Pollution Control Boards and Committees and submit to the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change and the report shall also be put in public domain;
- publish guidelines for maintaining buffer zone restricting any residential, commercial or any other construction activity from the outer boundary of the waste processing and disposal facilities for different sizes of facilities handling more than five tons per day of solid waste;
- publish guidelines, from time to time, on environmental aspects of processing and disposal of solid waste to enable local bodies to comply with the provisions of these rules; and
- provide guidance to States or Union territories on inter-state movement of waste.
- Duties and responsibilities of local authorities and village Panchayats of census towns and urban agglomerations.- The local authorities and Panchayats shall,-
- prepare a solid waste management plan as per state policy and strategy on solid waste management within six months from the date of notification of state policy and strategy and submit a copy to respective departments of State Government or Union territory Administration or agency authorised by the State Government or Union territory Administration;
- arrange for door to door collection of segregated solid waste from all households including slums and informal settlements, commercial, institutional and other non residential premises. From multi-storage buildings, large commercial complexes, malls, housing complexes, etc., this may be collected from the entry gate or any other designated location;
- establish a system to recognise organisations of waste pickers or informal waste collectors and promote and establish a system for integration of these authorised waste-pickers and waste collectors to facilitate their participation in solid waste management including door to door collection of waste;
- facilitate formation of Self Help Groups, provide identity cards and thereafter encourage integration in solid waste management including door to door collection of waste;
- frame bye-laws incorporating the provisions of these rules within one year from the date of notification of these rules and ensure timely implementation;
- prescribe from time to time user fee as deemed appropriate and collect the fee from the waste generators on its own or through authorised agency;
- direct waste generators not to litter i.e throw or dispose of any waste such as paper, water bottles, liquor bottles, soft drink canes, tetra packs, fruit peel, wrappers, etc., or burn or burry waste on streets, open public spaces, drains, waste bodies and to segregate the waste at source as prescribed under these rules and hand over the segregated waste to authorised the waste pickers or waste collectors authorised by the local body;
- setup material recovery facilities or secondary storage facilities with sufficient space for sorting of recyclable materials to enable informal or authorised waste pickers and waste collectors to separate recyclables from the waste and provide easy access to waste pickers and recyclers for collection of segregated recyclable waste such as paper, plastic, metal, glass, textile from the source of generation or from material recovery facilities; Bins for storage of bio-degradable wastes shall be painted green, those for storage of recyclable wastes shall be printed white and those for storage of other wastes shall be printed black;
- establish waste deposition centres for domestic hazardous waste and give direction for waste generators to deposit domestic hazardous wastes at this centre for its safe disposal. Such facility shall be established in a city or town in a manner that one centre is set up for the area of twenty square kilometers or part thereof and notify the timings of receiving domestic hazardous waste at such centres;
- ensure safe storage and transportation of the domestic hazardous waste to the hazardous waste disposal facility or as may be directed by the State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee;
- direct street sweepers not to burn tree leaves collected from street sweeping and store them separately and handover to the waste collectors or agency authorised by local body;
- provide training on solid waste management to waste-pickers and waste collectors;
- collect waste from vegetable, fruit, flower, meat, poultry and fish market on day to day basis and promote setting up of decentralised compost plant or bio-methanation plant at suitable locations in the markets or in the vicinity of markets ensuring hygienic conditions;
- collect separately waste from sweeping of streets, lanes and by-lanes daily, or on alternate days or twice a week depending on the density of population, commercial activity and local situation;
- set up covered secondary storage facility for temporary storage of street sweepings and silt removed from surface drains in cases where direct collection of such waste into transport vehicles is not convenient. Waste so collected shall be collected and disposed of at regular intervals as decided by the local body;
- collect horticulture, parks and garden waste separately and process in the parks and gardens, as far as possible;
- transport segregated bio-degradable waste to the processing facilities like compost plant, bio-methanation plant or any such facility. Preference shall be given for on site processing of such waste;
- transport non-bio-degradable waste to the respective processing facility or material recovery facilities or secondary storage facility;
- transport construction and demolition waste as per the provisions of the Construction and Demolition Waste management Rules, 2016;
- involve communities in waste management and promotion of home composting, bio-gas generation, decentralised processing of waste at community level subject to control of odour and maintenance of hygienic conditions around the facility;
- phase out the use of chemical fertilizer in two years and use compost in all parks, gardens maintained by the local body and wherever possible in other places under its jurisdiction. Incentives may be provided to recycling initiatives by informal waste recycling sector.
- facilitate construction, operation and maintenance of solid waste processing facilities and associated infrastructure on their own or with private sector participation or through any agency for optimum utilisation of various components of solid waste adopting suitable technology including the following technologies and adhering to the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Urban Development from time to time and standards prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board. Preference shall be given to decentralised processing to minimize transportation cost and environmental impacts such as-
- bio-methanation, microbial composting, vermi-composting, anaerobic digestion or any other appropriate processing for bio-stabilisation of biodegradable wastes;
- waste to energy processes including refused derived fuel for combustible fraction of waste or supply as feedstock to solid waste based power plants or cement kilns;
- undertake on their own or through any other agency construction, operation and maintenance of sanitary landfill and associated infrastructure as per Schedule 1 for disposal of residual wastes in a manner prescribed under these rules;
- make adequate provision of funds for capital investments as well as operation and maintenance of solid waste management services in the annual budget ensuring that funds for discretionary functions of the local body have been allocated only after meeting the requirement of necessary funds for solid waste management and other obligatory functions of the local body as per these rules;
- make an application in Form-I for grant of authorisation for setting up waste processing, treatment or disposal facility, if the volume of waste is exceeding five metric tones per day including sanitary landfills from the State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be;
- submit application for renewal of authorisation at least sixty days before the expiry of the validity of authorisation;
(za) prepare and submit annual report in Form IV on or before the 30th April of the succeeding year to the Commissioner or Director, Municipal Administration or designated Officer;
(zb) the annual report shall then be sent to the Secretary -in-Charge of the State Urban Development Department or village panchayat or rural development department and to the respective State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee by the 31st May of every year;
(zc) educate workers including contract workers and supervisors for door to door collection of segregated waste and transporting the unmixed waste during primary and secondary transportation to processing or disposal facility;
(zd) ensure that the operator of a facility provides personal protection equipment including uniform, fluorescent jacket, hand gloves, raincoats, appropriate foot wear and masks to all workers handling solid waste and the same are used by the workforce;
(ze) ensure that provisions for setting up of centers for collection, segregation and storage of segregated wastes, are incorporated in building plan while granting approval of building plan of a group housing society or market complex; and
(zf) frame bye-laws and prescribe criteria for levying of spot fine for persons who litters or fails to comply with the provisions of these rules and delegate powers to officers or local bodies to levy spot fines as per the bye laws framed; and
(zg) create public awareness through information, education and communication campaign and educate the waste generators on the following; namely:-
- not to litter;
- minimise generation of waste;
- reuse the waste to the extent possible;
- practice segregation of waste into bio–degradable, non-biodegradable (recyclable and combustible), sanitary waste and domestic hazardous wastes at source;
- practice home composting, vermi-composting, bio-gas generation or community level composting;
- wrap securely used sanitary waste as and when generated in the pouches provided by the brand owners or a suitable wrapping as prescribed by the local body and place the same in the bin meant for non- biodegradable waste;
- storage of segregated waste at source in different bins;
- handover segregated waste to waste pickers, waste collectors, recyclers or waste collection agencies; and
- pay monthly user fee or charges to waste collectors or local bodies or any other person authorised by the local body for sustainability of solid waste management.
(zh) stop land filling or dumping of mixed waste soon after the timeline as specified in rule 23 for setting up and operationalisation of sanitary landfill is over;
(zi) allow only the non-usable, non-recyclable, non-biodegradable, non-combustible and non-reactive inert waste and pre-processing rejects and residues from waste processing facilities to go to sanitary landfill and the sanitary landfill sites shall meet the specifications as given in Schedule–I, however, every effort shall be made to recycle or reuse the rejects to achieve the desired objective of zero waste going to landfill;
(zj) investigate and analyse all old open dumpsites and existing operational dumpsites for their potential of bio- mining and bio-remediation and wheresoever feasible, take necessary actions to bio-mine or bio-remediate the sites;
(zk) in absence of the potential of bio-mining and bio-remediation of dumpsite, it shall be scientifically capped as per landfill capping norms to prevent further damage to the environment.
- Duties of State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee.- (1) The State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee shall,-
- enforce these rules in their State through local bodies in their respective jurisdiction and review implementation of these rules at least twice a year in close coordination with concerned Directorate of Municipal Administration or Secretary-in-charge of State Urban Development Department;
- monitor environmental standards and adherence to conditions as specified under the Schedule I and Schedule II for waste processing and disposal sites;
- examine the proposal for authorisation and make such inquiries as deemed fit, after the receipt of the application for the same in Form I from the local body or any other agency authorised by the local body;
- while examining the proposal for authorisation, the requirement of consents under respective enactments and views of other agencies like the State Urban Development Department, the Town and Country Planning Department, District Planning Committee or Metropolitan Area Planning Committee, as may be applicable, Airport or Airbase Authority, the Ground Water Board, Railways, power distribution companies, highway department and other relevant agencies shall be taken into consideration and they shall be given four weeks time to give their views, if any;
- issue authorisation within a period of sixty days in Form II to the local body or an operator of a facility or any other agency authorised by local body stipulating compliance criteria and environmental standards as specified in Schedules I and II including other conditions, as may be necessary;
- synchronise the validity of said authorisation with the validity of the consents;
- suspend or cancel the authorization issued under clause (a) any time, if the local body or operator of the facility fails to operate the facility as per the conditions stipulated:
provided that no such authorization shall be suspended or cancelled without giving notice to the local body or operator, as the case may be; and
- on receipt of application for renewal, renew the authorisation for next five years, after examining every application on merit and subject to the condition that the operator of the facility has fulfilled all the provisions of the rules, standards or conditions specified in the authorisation, consents or environment clearance.
- The State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee shall, after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard to the applicant and for reasons thereof to be recorded in writing, refuse to grant or renew an authorisation.
- In case of new technologies, where no standards have been prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be, shall approach Central Pollution Control Board for getting standards specified.
- The State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be, shall monitor the compliance of the standards as prescribed or laid down and treatment technology as approved and the conditions stipulated in the authorisation and the standards specified in Schedules I and II under these rules as and when deemed appropriate but not less than once in a year.
- The State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee may give directions to local bodies for safe handling and disposal of domestic hazardous waste deposited by the waste generators at hazardous waste deposition facilities.
- The State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee shall regulate Inter-State movement of waste.
- Duty of manufacturers or brand owners of disposable products and sanitary napkins and diapers.- (1) All manufacturers of disposable products such as tin, glass, plastics packaging, etc., or brand owners who introduce such products in the market shall provide necessary financial assistance to local authorities for establishment of waste management system.
- All such brand owners who sell or market their products in such packaging material which are non- biodegradable shall put in place a system to collect back the packaging waste generated due to their production.
- Manufacturers or brand owners or marketing companies of sanitary napkins and diapers shall explore the possibility of using all recyclable materials in their products or they shall provide a pouch or wrapper for disposal of each napkin or diapers along with the packet of their sanitary products.
- All such manufacturers, brand owners or marketing companies shall educate the masses for wrapping and disposal of their products.
- Duties of the industrial units located within one hundred km from the refused derived fuel and waste to energy plants based on solid waste- All industrial units using fuel and located within one hundred km from a solid waste based refused derived fuel plant shall make arrangements within six months from the date of notification of these rules to replace at least five percent of their fuel requirement by refused derived fuel so produced.
- Criteria for Duties regarding setting-up solid waste processing and treatment facility.- (1) The department in- charge of the allocation of land assignment shall be responsible for providing suitable land for setting up of the solid waste processing and treatment facilities and notify such sites by the State Government or Union territory Administration.
- The operator of the facility shall design and set up the facility as per the technical guidelines issued by the Central Pollution Control Board in this regard from time to time and the manual on solid waste management prepared by the Ministry of Urban Development.
- The operator of the facility shall obtain necessary approvals from the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee.
- The State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee shall monitor the environment standards of the operation of the solid waste processing and treatment facilities.
- The operator of the facility shall be responsible for the safe and environmentally sound operations of the solid waste processing and or treatment facilities as per the guidelines issued by the Central Pollution Control Board from time to time and the Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management published by the Ministry of Urban Development and updated from time to time.
- The operator of the solid waste processing and treatment facility shall submit annual report in Form III each year by 30th April to the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Committee and concerned local body.
- Criteria and actions to be taken for solid waste management in hilly areas.- In the hilly areas, the duties and responsibilities of the local authorities shall be the same as mentioned in rule 15 with additional clauses as under:
- Construction of landfill on the hill shall be avoided. A transfer station at a suitable enclosed location shall be setup to collect residual waste from the processing facility and inert waste. A suitable land shall be identified in the plain areas down the hill within 25 kilometers for setting up sanitary landfill. The residual waste from the transfer station shall be disposed of at this sanitary landfill.
- In case of non-availability of such land, efforts shall be made to set up regional sanitary landfill for the inert and residual waste.
- Local body shall frame Bye-laws and prohibit citizen from littering wastes on the streets and give strict direction to the tourists not to dispose any waste such as paper, water bottles, liquor bottles, soft drink canes, tetra packs, any other plastic or paper waste on the streets or down the hills and instead direct to deposit such waste in the litter bins that shall be placed by the local body at all tourist destinations.
- Local body shall arrange to convey the provisions of solid waste management under the bye-laws to all tourists visiting the hilly areas at the entry point in the town as well as through the hotels, guest houses or like where they stay and by putting suitable hoardings at tourist destinations.
- Local body may levy solid waste management charge from the tourist at the entry point to make the solid waste management services sustainable.
- The department in- charge of the allocation of land assignment shall identify and allot suitable space on the hills for setting up decentralised waste processing facilities. Local body shall set up such facilities. Step garden system may be adopted for optimum utilisation of hill space.
- Criteria for waste to energy process.- (1) Non recyclable waste having calorific value of 1500 K/cal/kg or more shall not be disposed of on landfills and shall only be utilised for generating energy either or through refuse derived fuel or by giving away as feed stock for preparing refuse derived fuel.
- High calorific wastes shall be used for co-processing in cement or thermal power plants.
- The local body or an operator of facility or an agency designated by them proposing to set up waste to energy plant of more than five tones per day processing capacity shall submit an application in Form-I to the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be, for authorisation.
- The State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, on receiving such application for setting up waste to energy facility, shall examine the same and grant permission within sixty days.
- Time frame for implementation.- Necessary infrastructure for implementation of these rules shall be created by the local bodies and other concerned authorities, as the case may be, on their own, by directly or engaging agencies within the time frame specified below:
|Sl. No.||Activity||Time limit from the date of notification of rules|
|1.||identification of suitable sites for setting up solid waste processing facilities||1 year|
|2. dentification of suitable sites for setting up common regional sanitary landfill facilities for suitable clusters of local authorities under 0.5 million population and for setting up common regional sanitary landfill facilities or stand alone sanitary landfill facilities by all local authorities having a population of 0.5 million or more . 1 year 3. procurement of suitable sites for setting up solid waste processing facility and sanitary landfill facilities 2 years 4. enforcing waste generators to practice segregation of bio degradable, recyclable, combustible, sanitary waste domestic hazardous and inert solid wastes at source , 2 years 5. Ensure door to door collection of segregated waste and its transportation in covered vehicles to processing or disposal facilities. 2 years 6. ensure separate storage, collection and transportation of construction and demolition wastes 2 years 7. setting up solid waste processing facilities by all local bodies having 100000 or more population 2 years 8. Setting up solid waste processing facilities by local bodies and census towns below 100000 population. 3 years 9 setting up common or stand alone sanitary landfills by or for all local bodies having 0.5 million or more population for the disposal of only such residual wastes from the processing facilities as well as untreatable inert wastes as permitted under the Rules 3 years 10. setting up common or regional sanitary landfills by all local bodies and census towns under 0.5 million population for the disposal of permitted waste under the rules 3years 11. bio-remediation or capping of old and abandoned dump sites 5years|
- State Level Advisory Body. – (1) Every Department in-charge of local bodies of the concerned State Government or Union territory administration shall constitute a State Level Advisory Body within six months from the date of notification of these rules comprising the following members, namely:-
|1.||Secretary, Department of Urban Development orLocal self government department of the State||Chairperson, ex- officio|
|2.||One representative of Panchayats or Rural development Department not below the rank of Joint Secretary to State Government||Member, ex-officio|
|3.||one representative of Revenue Department of State Government||Member,ex-officio|
|4.||One representative from Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Government of India||Member, ex-officio|
|5.||One representative from Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India||Member, ex-officio|
|6.||One representative from Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India||Member, ex-officio|
|7.||One representative from the Central Pollution Control Board||Member, ex-officio|
|8.||One representative from the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee||Member, ex-officio|
|9.||One representative from Indian Institute of Technology or National Institute of Technology||Member,Ex-officio|
|10.||Chief town planner of the state||Member|
|11.||Three representatives from the local bodies by rotation||Member|
|12.||Two representatives from census towns or urban agglomerations by rotation.||Member|
|13.||One representative from reputed Non-Governmental Organisation or Civil Society working for the waste pickers or informal recycler or solid waste management||Member|
|14.||One representative from a body representing Industries at the State or Central level||Member|
|15.||one representative from waste recycling industry||member|
|16.||Two subject experts||Member|
|17.||Co-opt one representative each from agriculture department, and labour department of State Government.||Member|
- The State Level Advisory Body shall meet at least one in every six months to review the matters related to implementation of these rules, state policy and strategy on solid waste management and give advice to state government for taking measures that are necessary for expeditious and appropriate implementation of these rules.
- The copies of the review report shall be forwarded to the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee for necessary action.
- Annual report.- (1) The operator of facility shall submit the annual report to the local body in Form-III on or before the 30th day of April every year.
- The local body shall submit its annual report in Form-IV to State P Control Board or P Committee and the Secretary-in-Charge of the Department of Urban Development of the concerned State or Union Territory in case of metropolitan city and to the Director of Municipal Administration or Commissioner of Municipal Administration or Officer in -Charge of Urban local bodies in the state in case of all other local bodies of state on or before the 30th day of June every year
- Each State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee as the case may be, shall prepare and submit the consolidated annual report to the Central Pollution Control Board and Ministry of Urban Development on the implementation of these rules and action taken against non complying local body by the 31stday of July of each year in Form-V.
- The Central Pollution Control Board shall prepare a consolidated annual review report on the status of implementation of these rules by local bodies in the country and forward the same to the Ministry of Urban Development
and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, along with its recommendations before the 31stday of August each year.
- The annual report shall be reviewed by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change during the meeting of Central Monitoring Committee.
- Accident reporting- In case of an accident at any solid waste processing or treatment or disposal facility or landfill site, the Officer- in- charge of the facility shall report to the local body in Form-VI and the local body shall review and issue instructions if any, to the in- charge of the facility.
[see rule 15 (w),(zi), 16 (1) (b) (e), 16 (4)] Specifications for Sanitary Landfills
(A) Criteria for site selection.-
- The department in the business allocation of land assignment shall provide suitable site for setting up of the solid waste processing and treatment facilities and notify such sites.
- The sanitary landfill site shall be planned, designed and developed with proper documentation of construction plan as well as a closure planin a phased manner. In case a new landfill facility is being established adjoining an existing landfill site, the closure plan of existing landfill should form a part of the proposal of such new landfill.
- The landfill sites shall be selected to make use of nearby wastes processing facilities. Otherwise, wastes processing facility shall be planned as an integral part of the landfill site.
- Landfill sites shall be set up as per the guidelines of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India and Central Pollution Control Board.
- The existing landfill sites which are in use for more than five years shall be improved in accordance with the specifications given in this Schedule.
- The landfill site shall be large enough to last for at least 20-25 years and shall develop ‘landfill cells’ in a phased manner to avoid water logging and misuse.
- The landfill site shall be 100 meter away from river, 200 meter from a pond, 200 meter from Highways, Habitations, Public Parks and water supply wells and 20 km away from Airports or Airbase. However in a special case, landfill site may be set up within a distance of 10 and 20 km away from the Airport/Airbase after obtaining no objection certificate from the civil aviation authority/ Air force as the case may be. The Landfill site shall not be permitted within the flood plains as recorded for the last 100 years, zone of coastal regulation, wetland, Critical habitat areas, sensitive eco-fragile areas..
- The sites for landfill and processing and disposal of solid waste shall be incorporated in the Town Planning Department’s land-use plans.
- A buffer zone of no development shall be maintained around solid waste processing and disposal facility, exceeding five Tonnes per day of installed capacity. This will be maintained within the total area of the solid waste processing and disposal facility. The buffer zone shall be prescribed on case to case basis by the local body in consultation with concerned State Pollution Control Board.
- The biomedical waste shall be disposed of in accordance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, as amended from time to time . The hazardous waste shall be managed in accordance with the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, as amended from time to time. The E- waste shall be managed in accordance with the e-Waste (Management ) Rules, 2016 as amended from time to time.
- Temporary storage facility for solid waste shall be established in each landfill site to accommodate the waste in case of non- operation of waste processing and during emergency or natural calamities.
(B) Criteria for development of facilities at the sanitary landfills.-
- Landfill site shall be fenced or hedged and provided with proper gate to monitor incoming vehicles, to prevent entry of unauthorised persons and stray animals
- The approach and / internal roads shall be concreted or paved so as to avoid generation of dust particles due to vehicular movement and shall be so designed to ensure free movement of vehicles and other machinery.
- The landfill site shall have waste inspection facility to monitor waste brought in for landfilling h, office facility for record keeping and shelter for keeping equipment and machinery including pollution monitoring equipment. The operator of the facility shall maintain record of waste received, processed and disposed.
- Provisions like weigh bridge to measure quantity of waste brought at landfill site, fire protection equipment and other facilities as may be required shall be provided.
- Utilities such as drinking water and sanitary facilities (preferably washing/bathing facilities for workers) and lighting arrangements for easy landfill operations during night hours shall be provided.
- Safety provisions including health inspections of workers at landfill sites shall be carried out made.
- Provisions for parking, cleaning, washing of transport vehicles carrying solid waste shall be provided. The wastewater so generated shall be treated to meet the prescribed standards.
(C) Criteria for specifications for land filling operations and closure on completion of land filling.-
- Waste for land filling shall be compacted in thin layers using heavy compactors to achieve high density of the waste. In high rainfall areas where heavy compactors cannot be used, alternative measures shall be adopted.
- Till the time waste processing facilities for composting or recycling or energy recovery are set up, the waste shall be sent to the sanitary landfill. The landfill cell shall be covered at the end of each working day with minimum 10 cm of soil, inert debris or construction material..
- Prior to the commencement of monsoon season, an intermediate cover of 40-65 cm thickness of soil shall be placed on the landfill with proper compaction and grading to prevent infiltration during monsoon. Proper drainage shall be constructed to divert run-off away from the active cell of the landfill.
- After completion of landfill, a final cover shall be designed to minimise infiltration and erosion. The final cover shall meet the following specifications, namely :–
- The final cover shall have a barrier soil layer comprising of 60 cm of clay or amended soil with permeability coefficient less than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.
- On top of the barrier soil layer, there shall be a drainage layer of 15 cm.
- On top of the drainage layer, there shall be a vegetative layer of 45 cm to support natural plant growth and to minimise erosion.
- Criteria for pollution prevention.-In order to prevent pollution from landfill operations, the following provisions shall be made, namely:-
- The storm water drain shall be designed and constructed in such a way that the surface runoff water is diverted from the landfilling site and leachates from solid waste locations do not get mixed with the surface runoff water. Provisions for diversion of storm water discharge drains shall be made to minimise leachate generation and prevent pollution of surface water and also for avoiding flooding and creation of marshy conditions.
- Non-permeable lining system at the base and walls of waste disposal area. For landfill receiving residues of waste processing facilities or mixed waste or waste having contamination of hazardous materials (such as aerosols, bleaches, polishes, batteries, waste oils, paint products and pesticides) shall have liner of composite barrier of 1.5 mm thick high density polyethylene (HDPE) geo-membrane or geo-synthetic liners, or equivalent, overlying 90 cm of soil (clay or amended soil) having permeability coefficient not greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec. The highest level of water table shall be at least two meter below the base of clay or amended soil barrier layer provided at the bottom of landfills.
- Provisions for management of leachates including its collection and treatment shall be made. The treated leachate shall be recycled or utilized as permitted, otherwise shall be released into the sewerage line, after meeting the standards specified in Schedule- II.. In no case, leachate shall be released into open environment.
- Arrangement shall be made to prevent leachate runoff from landfill area entering any drain, stream, river, lake or pond. In case of mixing of runoff water with leachate or solid waste, the entire mixed water shall be treated by the concern authority.
(E) Criteria for water quality monitoring.-
- Before establishing any landfill site, baseline data of ground water quality in the area shall be collected and kept in record for future reference. The ground water quality within 50 meter of the periphery of landfill site shall be periodically monitored covering different seasons in a year that is, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon period to ensure that the ground water is not contaminated.
- Usage of groundwater in and around landfill sites for any purpose (including drinking and irrigation) shall be considered only after ensuring its quality. The following specifications for drinking water quality shall apply for monitoring purpose, namely :-
|S. No.||Parameters||IS 10500:2012, Edition 2.2(2003-09) Desirable limit (mg/l except for pH)|
|Chromium(as Cr6+ )||0.05|
|Nitrate as NO3||45.0|
|Total hardness (as CaCO3)||300.0|
|Phenolic compounds (as C6H5OH)||0.001|
|Sulphate (as SO4)||200|
(F) Criteria for ambient air quality monitoring.-
- Landfill gas control system including gas collection system shall be installed at landfill site to minimize odour, prevent off-site migration of gases, to protect vegetation planted on the rehabilitated landfill surface. For enhancing landfill gas recovery, use of geomembranes in cover systems along with gas collection wells should be considered.
- The concentration of methane gas generated at landfill site shall not exceed 25 per cent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).
- The landfill gas from the collection facility at a landfill site shall be utilized for either direct thermal applications or power generation, as per viability. Otherwise, landfill gas shall be burnt (flared) and shall not be allowed to escape directly to the atmosphere or for illegal tapping. Passive venting shall be allowed in case if its utilisation or flaring is not possible.
- Ambient air quality at the landfill site and at the vicinity shall be regularly monitored. Ambient air quality shall
meet the standards prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board for Industrial area.
G. Criteria for plantation at landfill Site.- A vegetative cover shall be provided over the completed site in accordance with the following specifications, namely:-
- Locally adopted non-edible perennial plants that are resistant to drought and extreme temperatures shall be planted;
- The selection of plants should be of such variety that their roots do not penetrate more than 30 cms. This condition shall apply till the landfill is stabilized;
- Selected plants shall have ability to thrive on low-nutrient soil with minimum nutrient addition;
- Plantation to be made in sufficient density to minimise soil erosion.
- Green belts shall be developed all around the boundary of the landfill in consultation with State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees.
H. Criteria for post-care of landfill site.- (1) The post-closure care of landfill site shall be conducted for at least fifteen years and long term monitoring or care plan shall consist of the following, namely :-‘
- Maintaining the integrity and effectiveness of final cover, making repairs and preventing run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover;
- Monitoring leachate collection system in accordance with the requirement;
- Monitoring of ground water in and around landfill;
- Maintaining and operating the landfill gas collection system to meet the standards.
(2) Use of closed landfill sites after fifteen years of post-closure monitoring can be considered for human settlement or otherwise only after ensuring that gaseous emission and leachate quality analysis complies with the specified standards and the soil stability is ensured.
I. Criteria for special provisions for hilly areas.-Cities and towns located on hills shall have location-specific methods evolved for final disposal of solid waste by the local body with the approval of the concerned State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee. The local body shall set up processing facilities for utilisation of biodegradable organic waste. The non-biodegradable recyclable materials shall be stored and sent for recycling periodically. The inert and non-biodegradable waste shall be used for building roads or filling-up of appropriate areas on hills. In case of constraints in finding adequate land in hilly areas, waste not suitable for road-laying or filling up shall be disposed of in regional landfills in plain areas.
J. Closure and Rehabilitation of Old Dumps- Solid waste dumps which have reached their full capacity or those which will not receive additional waste after setting up of new and properly designed landfills should be closed and rehabilitated by examining the following options:
(i) Reduction of waste by bio mining and waste processing followed by placement of residues in new landfills or capping as in (ii) below.
(i). Capping with solid waste cover or solid waste cover enhanced with geomembrane to enable collection and flaring / utilisation of greenhouse gases.
- Capping as in (ii) above with additional measures (in alluvial and other coarse grained soils) such as cut-off walls and extraction wells for pumping and treating contaminated ground water.
- Any other method suitable for reducing environmental impact to acceptable level.
[see rule 16 (1), (b), (e), 16 (4) ) Standards of processing and treatment of solid waste
- Standards for composting.- The waste processing facilities shall include composting as one of the technologies for processing of bio degradable waste. In order to prevent pollution from compost plant, the following shall be complied with namely :-
- The incoming organic waste at site shall be stored properly prior to further processing. To the extent possible, the waste storage area should be covered. If, such storage is done in an open area, it shall be provided with impermeable base with facility for collection of leachate and surface water run-off into lined drains leading to a leachate treatment and disposal facility;
- Necessary precaution shall be taken to minimise nuisance of odour, flies, rodents, bird menace and fire hazard;